Auch zehn Jahre nach der Ölkatastrophe um Deepwater Horizon hat sich der Golf von Mexiko nicht wieder erholt. Auswirkungen in der Natur. Im April explodierte die Bohrinsel "Deepwater Horizon" im Golf von Mexiko. Seither hat die Trump-Regierung Sicherheits- und. Die Ölpest im Golf von Mexiko wurde durch die Explosion der Ölbohrplattform Deepwater Horizon am April ausgelöst. Die vom April bis zum
Ölkatastrophe im NaturparadiesAm April explodierte die Bohrinsel Deepwater Horizon im Golf von Mexiko. 87 Tage strömte das Öl ins Meer. Monatelang trieb ein. Vor zehn Jahren explodiert die Bohrinsel Deepwater Horizon. In den Golf von Mexiko sollen rund Millionen Liter Öl geflossen sein. Deepwater Horizon. |12 |1 Std. 47 Min.|Filme nach wahren Begebenheiten. Die Verfilmung des Unglücks auf der gleichnamigen Ölplattform im Jahr
Deepwater Horizon Search form VideoDeepwater Horizon Blowout Animation
Sir Stephen Bücher Als Deko sich als Deepwater Horizon dominanter als Deepwater Horizon O verliebt sich in ihn. - Entdecken Sie den DeutschlandfunkEinklappen Ausklappen Sender auswählen.
The well is situated in the Macondo Prospect in Mississippi Canyon Block MC of the Gulf of Mexico , in the United States' exclusive economic zone.
Coast Guard USCG search operation and are believed to have died in the explosion. The oil leak was discovered on the afternoon of April 22, when a large oil slick began to spread at the former rig site.
Internal emails released in showed that one BP employee had estimates that matched those of the FRTG, and shared the data with supervisors, but BP continued with their lower number.
Concerns were raised about the appearance of underwater, horizontally extended plumes of dissolved oil.
Researchers concluded that deep plumes of dissolved oil and gas would likely remain confined to the northern Gulf of Mexico and that the peak impact on dissolved oxygen would be delayed and long lasting.
Subsurface oil remained offshore and in fine silts. Regular cleanup patrols were no longer considered justified but cleanup was being conducted on an as-needed basis, in response to public reports.
According to researchers, there is "some evidence it may have caused lesions in fish caught in that area".
First, BP unsuccessfully attempted to close the blowout preventer valves on the wellhead with remotely operated underwater vehicles.
While this technique had worked in shallower water, it failed here when gas combined with cold water to form methane hydrate crystals that blocked the opening at the top of the dome.
BP then inserted a riser insertion tube into the pipe and a stopper-like washer around the tube plugged at the end of the riser and diverted the flow into the insertion tube.
A final device was created to attach a chamber of larger diameter than the flowing pipe with a flange that bolted to the top of the blowout preventer and a manual valve set to close off the flow once attached.
On July 15, the device was secured and time was taken closing the valves to ensure the attachment under increasing pressure until the valves were closed completing the temporary measures.
Transocean's Development Driller III started drilling a first relief well on May 2, GSF Development Driller II started drilling a second relief on May 16, Pumping continued for eight hours, at the end of which the well was declared to be "in a static condition.
On September 3, , the ton failed blowout preventer was removed from the well and a replacement blowout preventer was installed.
In May , BP admitted they had "discovered things that were broken in the sub-surface" during the "top kill" effort.
Oil slicks were reported in March  and August ,   in March  and October ,    and in January The USCG initially said the oil was too dispersed to recover and posed no threat to the coastline,  but later warned BP and Transocean that they might be held financially responsible for cleaning up the new oil.
According to BP and the USCG, it is "not oil and it's not harmful. In January , BP said that they were continuing to investigate possible sources of the oil sheen.
Chemical data implied that the substance might be residual oil leaking from the wreckage. If that proves to be the case, the sheen can be expected to eventually disappear.
Another possibility is that it is formation oil escaping from the subsurface, using the Macondo well casing as flow conduit, possibly intersecting a naturally occurring fault, and then following that to escape at the surface some distance from the wellhead.
If it proves to be oil from the subsurface, then that could indicate the possibility of an indefinite release of oil.
The oil slick was comparable in size to naturally occurring oil seeps and was not large enough to pose an immediate threat to wildlife.
The fundamental strategies for addressing the spill were containment, dispersal and removal. In May , a local native set up a network for people to volunteer their assistance in cleaning up beaches.
Boat captains were given the opportunity to offer the use of their boat to help clean and prevent the oil from further spreading.
To assist with the efforts the captains had to register their ships with the Vessels of Opportunity, however an issue arose when more boats registered than actually participated in the clean up efforts - only a third of the registered boats.
Many local supporters were disappointed with BP's slow response, prompting the formation of The Florida Key Environmental Coalition. This coalition gained significant influence in the clean up of the oil spill to try and gain some control over the situation.
Booms extend 18—48 inches 0. The Louisiana barrier island plan was developed to construct barrier islands to protect the coast of Louisiana.
The plan was criticised for its expense and poor results. For a time, a group called Matter of Trust, citing insufficient availability of manufactured oil absorption booms, campaigned to encourage hair salons, dog groomers and sheep farmers to donate hair, fur and wool clippings, stuffed in pantyhose or tights, to help contain oil near impacted shores, a technique dating back to the Exxon Valdez disaster.
The spill was also notable for the volume of Corexit oil dispersant used and for application methods that were "purely experimental.
A analysis conducted by Earthjustice and Toxipedia showed that the dispersant could contain cancer-causing agents, hazardous toxins and endocrine-disrupting chemicals.
The dangers are even greater when poured into the source of a spill, because they are picked up by the current and wash through the Gulf.
Repeated or excessive exposure Corexit ECA and Corexit ECA were the principal variants. Underwater injection of Corexit into the leak may have created the oil plumes which were discovered below the surface.
In late , a study from Georgia Tech and Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes in Environmental Pollution journal reported that Corexit used during the BP oil spill had increased the toxicity of the oil by 52 times.
The three basic approaches for removing the oil from the water were: combustion, offshore filtration, and collection for later processing.
According to EPA 's report, the released amount is not enough to pose an added cancer risk to workers and coastal residents, while a second research team concluded that there was only a small added risk.
Oil was collected from water by using skimmers. In total 2, various skimmers were used. Many large-scale skimmers exceeded the limit.
After the well was capped, the cleanup of shore became the main task of the response works. Two main types of affected coast were sandy beaches and marshes.
On beaches the main techniques were sifting sand, removing tar balls, and digging out tar mats manually or by using mechanical devices. Dispersants are said to facilitate the digestion of the oil by microbes.
Mixing dispersants with oil at the wellhead would keep some oil below the surface and in theory, allowing microbes to digest the oil before it reached the surface.
Various risks were identified and evaluated, in particular that an increase in microbial activity might reduce subsea oxygen levels, threatening fish and other animals.
Several studies suggest that microbes successfully consumed part of the oil. Valentine, a professor of microbial geochemistry at UC Santa Barbara , said that the capability of microbes to break down the leaked oil had been greatly exaggerated.
Genetically modified Alcanivorax borkumensis was added to the waters to speed digestion. On May 18, , BP was designated the lead "Responsible Party" under the Oil Pollution Act of , which meant that BP had operational authority in coordinating the response.
The first video images were released on 12 May, and further video images were released by members of Congress who had been given access to them by BP.
Exceptions for these restrictions were granted on a case-by-case basis dependent on safety issues, operational requirements, weather conditions, and traffic volume.
Local and federal authorities citing BP's authority denied access to members of the press attempting to document the spill from the air, from boats, and on the ground, blocking access to areas that were open to the public.
In one example, the U. Coast Guard stopped Jean-Michel Cousteau 's boat and allowed it to proceed only after the Coast Guard was assured that no journalists were on board.
The CBS crew was told by the authorities: "this is BP's rules, not ours," when trying to film the area. The FAA denied that BP employees or contractors made decisions on flights and access, saying those decisions were made by the FAA and Coast Guard.
On 15 April , BP announced that cleanup along the coast was substantially complete, while the United States Coast Guard work continued using physical barriers such as floating booms, the cleanup workers' objective was to keep the oil from spreading any further.
They used skimmer boats to remove a majority of the oil and they used sorbents to absorb any remnant of oil like a sponge. Although that method did not remove the oil completely, chemicals called dispersants are used to hasten the oil's degradation to prevent the oil from doing further damage to the marine habitats below the surface water.
The State of Louisiana was funded by BP to do regular testing of fish, shellfish, water, and sand. Initial testing regularly showed detectable levels of dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, a chemical used in the clean up.
Testing over the past year reported by GulfSource. The PAHs were most concentrated near the Louisiana Coast, but levels also jumped 2—3 fold in areas off Alabama, Mississippi and Florida.
A study of the effects of the oil spill on bluefin tuna funded by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA , Stanford University , and the Monterey Bay Aquarium and published in the journal Science , found that the toxins from oil spills can cause irregular heartbeats leading to cardiac arrest.
Calling the vicinity of the spill "one of the most productive ocean ecosystems in the world", the study found that even at very low concentrations "PAH cardiotoxicity was potentially a common form of injury among a broad range of species in the vicinity of the oil.
The scientists said that their findings would most likely apply to other large predator fish and "even to humans, whose developing hearts are in many ways similar.
The oil dispersant Corexit , previously only used as a surface application, was released underwater in unprecedented amounts, with the intent of making it more easily biodegraded by naturally occurring microbes.
Thus, oil that would normally rise to the surface of the water was emulsified into tiny droplets and remained suspended in the water and on the sea floor.
Pelican eggs contained "petroleum compounds and Corexit". Christopher Haney, Harold Geiger, and Jeffrey Short, three researchers with extensive experience in environmental monitoring and post-spill mortality assessments, over one million coastal birds died as a direct result of the Deepwater Horizon spill.
These numbers, coupled with the National Audubon Society scientists' observations of bird colonies and bird mortality well after the acute phase, have led scientists to conclude that more than one million birds ultimately succumbed to the lethal effects of the Gulf oil spill.
In July , it was reported that the spill was "already having a 'devastating' effect on marine life in the Gulf".
BP officials deny that the disease conditions are related to the spill, saying that dolphin deaths actually began being reported before the BP oil spill.
Before the spill there were an average of strandings per year; since the spill the number has jumped to roughly In , tar balls continued to wash up along the Gulf coast     and in , tar balls could still be found in on the Mississippi and Louisiana coasts, along with oil sheens in marshes and signs of severe erosion of coastal islands, brought about by the death of trees and marsh grass from exposure to the oil.
In , researchers found that oil on the bottom of the seafloor did not seem to be degrading,  and observed a phenomenon called a "dirty blizzard": oil in the water column began clumping around suspended sediments, and falling to the ocean floor in an "underwater rain of oily particles.
A bluefin tuna study in Science found that oil already broken down by wave action and chemical dispersants was more toxic than fresh oil.
A study by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , published in PLOS ONE , links the sharp increase in dolphin deaths to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
On 12 April , a research team reported that 88 percent of about baby or stillborn dolphins within the spill area "had abnormal or under-developed lungs", compared to 15 percent in other areas.
The study was published in the April Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. The United States Department of Health and Human Services set up the GuLF Study in June in response to these reports.
The study is run by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences , and will last at least five years.
Mike Robicheux, a Louisiana physician, described the situation as "the biggest public health crisis from a chemical poisoning in the history of this country.
Following the 26 May hospitalization of seven fishermen that were working in the cleanup crew, BP requested that the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health perform a Health Hazard Evaluation.
This was to cover all offshore cleanup activities, BP later requested a second NIOSH investigation of onshore cleanup operations. Tests for chemical exposure in the seven fishermen were negative; NIOSH concluded that the hospitalizations were most likely a result of heat, fatigue, and terpenes that were being used to clean the decks.
Review of 10 later hospitalizations found that heat exposure and dehydration were consistent findings but could not establish chemical exposure.
NIOSH personnel performed air monitoring around cleanup workers at sea, on land, and during the application of Corexit. Air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and PAHs never exceeded permissible exposure levels.
A limitation of their methodology was that some VOCs may have already evaporated from the oil before they began their investigation.
Without any opposing force , oil began to discharge into the gulf. The volume of oil escaping the damaged well—originally estimated by BP to be about 1, barrels per day—was thought by U.
Forensic analysis of the BOP completed the following year determined that a set of massive blades known as blind shear rams—designed to slice through the pipe carrying oil—had malfunctioned because the pipe had bent under the pressure of the rising gas and oil.
A report by the U. Chemical Safety Board claimed that the blind shear rams had activated sooner than previously thought and may have actually punctured the pipe.
Efforts in May to place a containment dome over the largest leak in the broken riser were thwarted by the buoyant action of gas hydrates —gas molecules in an ice matrix—formed by the reaction of natural gas and cold water.
With the damaged riser shorn from the LMRP—the top segment of the BOP—the cap was lowered into place. Though fitted loosely over the BOP and allowing some oil to escape, the cap enabled BP to siphon approximately 15, barrels of oil per day to a tanker.
The addition of an ancillary collection system comprising several devices, also tapped into the BOP, increased the collection rate to approximately 25, barrels of oil a day.
Retrieved 29 May The McClatchy Company. Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 24 April Red Mist Media. Retrieved 26 May Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 9 May US Minerals Management Service.
Retrieved 6 June Retrieved 18 May Retrieved 21 April The New York Times. Retrieved 19 July Associated Press. Retrieved 24 June Bromwich to Lead Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement".
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement. Archived from the original on 26 June Upstream Online. NHST Media Group.
Retrieved 4 June National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , Office of Response and Restoration. Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 25 April National Wildlife.
National Wildlife Federation. Retrieved 2 May We felt the heat. We heard it," said Bourg's friend Dustin King.
The ship eventually became a refuge for the survivors. Methane gas explosions ignited the rig. Propane tanks and other flammables became potential bombs on the decks.
Researching the Deepwater Horizon true story confirmed the rig suffered what in the industry is termed a "blowout," a sudden surge of oil and gas that bursts out of the well.
Drilling an oil well is a lot like puncturing a balloon. An enormous amount of pressure exists in the well, ready to unleash oil and gas.
The pressure must be controlled at all times. To help do this, a blowout preventer BOP sits on top of the well head. The BOP is a 4-story, ton stack of hydraulic valves that control powerful rams that can slam tightly shut and seal off the well completely if there's a problem.
If those rams and the annular preventers fail to work, the last resort is the blind shear ram, which is supposed to cleanly slice the drill pipe so that it can be sealed off.
The vessel above can then safely disconnect from the well. In the moments after the gas on the rig ignited, the crew tried to activate the BOP before abandoning ship, as Mr.
Jimmy Kurt Russell tries to do in the movie. However, the BOP failed to seal the well, most likely because the drill pipe inside it had buckled due to "effective compression" and was off-center when the blind shear ram attempted to cut the pipe.
As a result, the pipe was only partially cut and a seal could not be made. Oil company BP later tried to blame offshore drilling contractor Transocean for failing to adequately maintain the BOP and control the well Chemical Safety Board.
As I got to the next door, it exploded. At that point I actually got angry, I was mad at the doors. I was mad that these fire doors that are supposed to protect me are hurtin' me.
He could hardly breathe and he also had suffered injuries to his ankle and elbow. The latter rendered his left arm nearly useless as he tried to help the crew get off the ship.
Actor Mark Wahlberg left and his character's real-life counterpart, Mike Williams right , on the set of the Deepwater Horizon movie.
Nicknamed "Mr. Jimmy," Mike Williams recalled seeing Jimmy Harrell when he made it to the bridge after the explosions Williams did not rescue Harrell outside his stateroom as Mark Wahlberg's character does in the movie.
Both lifeboats that were designated to be used left without Mike Williams, the rig's captain Jimmy Harrell, and several other crew members.
With about eight of them left on the bridge, they were about 20 yards from the lifeboat deck, which was down a flight of stairs.
Young technician Andrea Fleytas portrayed by Gina Rodriguez and another young man were stranded with Williams. Nominated for 2 Oscars. Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Mark Wahlberg Mike Williams Kurt Russell Jimmy Harrell Douglas M.
Landry James DuMont O'Bryan Joe Chrest Sims Gina Rodriguez Andrea Fleytas Brad Leland Kaluza John Malkovich Vidrine David Maldonado Kuchta as Dave Maldonado J.
Dewey A. Revette as JD Evermore Ethan Suplee Jason Anderson Jason Pine Stephen Ray Curtis Jason Kirkpatrick Aaron Dale Burkeen Robert Walker Branchaud Doug Brown Dylan O'Brien Edit Storyline In April , there is no oil exploration operation in the Gulf of Mexico to compare with the Deepwater Horizon oil rig with its size or sheer depth of its drilling.
Edit Did You Know? Visit the Gulf Spill Restoration website for a list of contacts. You are here Home Oil Spills Back to top Deepwater Horizon.
Oil Spill Gulf of Mexico April What Happened? What Were the Impacts? What's Happening Now? Early response to the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion USCG.
Contacts Visit the Gulf Spill Restoration website for a list of contacts. Trustees National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.Die Deepwater Horizon war eine Bohrplattform für die Erdölexploration im Golf von Mexiko. Die Firma Transocean stellte sie in Dienst und betrieb sie im. Die Ölpest im Golf von Mexiko wurde durch die Explosion der Ölbohrplattform Deepwater Horizon am April ausgelöst. Die vom April bis zum Auch zehn Jahre nach der Ölkatastrophe um Deepwater Horizon hat sich der Golf von Mexiko nicht wieder erholt. Auswirkungen in der Natur. Im April explodierte die Bohrinsel "Deepwater Horizon" im Golf von Mexiko. Seither hat die Trump-Regierung Sicherheits- und.